Installing and Configuring SAMBA on Debian based Operating system

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Wikipedia: Samba is a free softwarere-implementation of the SMB/CIFSnetworkingprotocol, originally developed by Andrew Tridgell. As of version 3, Samba provides fileand printservicesfor various Microsoft Windows clientsand can integrate with a Windows Server domain, either as a Primary Domain Controller (PDC) or as a domain member. It can also be part of an Active Directory domain.
Installing and Configuring:
apt-get install samba

In the screenshot I can see that it is adding group “sambashare” with group ID 112. When installation finished I changed the directory to /etc/samba using cd Command.
Here is the smb.conf configuration I have pasted from my system:
root@scientific:/etc/samba# cat smb.conf
#

# Sample configuration file for the Samba suite for Debian GNU/Linux.

#

#

# This is the main Samba configuration file. You should read the

# smb.conf(5) manual page in order to understand the options listed

# here. Samba has a huge number of configurable options most of which

# are not shown in this example

#

# Some options that are often worth tuning have been included as

# commented-out examples in this file.

# – When such options are commented with “;”, the proposed setting

# differs from the default Samba behaviour

# – When commented with “#”, the proposed setting is the default

# behaviour of Samba but the option is considered important

# enough to be mentioned here

#

# NOTE: Whenever you modify this file you should run the command

# “testparm” to check that you have not made any basic syntactic

# errors.

# A well-established practice is to name the original file

# “smb.conf.master” and create the “real” config file with

# testparm -s smb.conf.master >smb.conf

# This minimizes the size of the really used smb.conf file

# which, according to the Samba Team, impacts performance

# However, use this with caution if your smb.conf file contains nested

# “include” statements. See Debian bug #483187 for a case

# where using a master file is not a good idea.

#


#======================= Global Settings =======================


[global]


## Browsing/Identification ###


# Change this to the workgroup/NT-domain name your Samba server will part of

workgroup = WORKGROUP


# server string is the equivalent of the NT Description field

server string = %h server


# Windows Internet Name Serving Support Section:

# WINS Support – Tells the NMBD component of Samba to enable its WINS Server

# wins support = no


# WINS Server – Tells the NMBD components of Samba to be a WINS Client

# Note: Samba can be either a WINS Server, or a WINS Client, but NOT both

; wins server = w.x.y.z


# This will prevent nmbd to search for NetBIOS names through DNS.

dns proxy = no


# What naming service and in what order should we use to resolve host names

# to IP addresses

; name resolve order = lmhosts host wins bcast


#### Networking ####


# The specific set of interfaces / networks to bind to

# This can be either the interface name or an IP address/netmask;

# interface names are normally preferred

; interfaces = 127.0.0.0/8 eth0


# Only bind to the named interfaces and/or networks; you must use the

# ‘interfaces’ option above to use this.

# It is recommended that you enable this feature if your Samba machine is

# not protected by a firewall or is a firewall itself. However, this

# option cannot handle dynamic or non-broadcast interfaces correctly.

; bind interfaces only = yes




#### Debugging/Accounting ####


# This tells Samba to use a separate log file for each machine

# that connects

log file = /var/log/samba/log.%m


# Cap the size of the individual log files (in KiB).

max log size = 1000


# If you want Samba to only log through syslog then set the following

# parameter to ‘yes’.

# syslog only = no


# We want Samba to log a minimum amount of information to syslog. Everything

# should go to /var/log/samba/log.{smbd,nmbd} instead. If you want to log

# through syslog you should set the following parameter to something higher.

syslog = 0


# Do something sensible when Samba crashes: mail the admin a backtrace

panic action = /usr/share/samba/panic-action %d



####### Authentication #######


# “security = user” is always a good idea. This will require a Unix account

# in this server for every user accessing the server. See

# /usr/share/doc/samba-doc/htmldocs/Samba3-HOWTO/ServerType.html

# in the samba-doc package for details.

# security = user


# You may wish to use password encryption. See the section on

# ‘encrypt passwords’ in the smb.conf(5) manpage before enabling.

encrypt passwords = true


# If you are using encrypted passwords, Samba will need to know what

# password database type you are using.

passdb backend = tdbsam


obey pam restrictions = yes


# This boolean parameter controls whether Samba attempts to sync the Unix

# password with the SMB password when the encrypted SMB password in the

# passdb is changed.

unix password sync = yes


# For Unix password sync to work on a Debian GNU/Linux system, the following

# parameters must be set (thanks to Ian Kahan <<kahan@informatik.tu-muenchen.de> for

# sending the correct chat script for the passwd program in Debian Sarge).

passwd program = /usr/bin/passwd %u

passwd chat = *Entersnews*spassword:* %nn *Retypesnews*spassword:* %nn *passwordsupdatedssuccessfully* .


# This boolean controls whether PAM will be used for password changes

# when requested by an SMB client instead of the program listed in

# ‘passwd program’. The default is ‘no’.

pam password change = yes


# This option controls how unsuccessful authentication attempts are mapped

# to anonymous connections

map to guest = bad user


########## Domains ###########


# Is this machine able to authenticate users. Both PDC and BDC

# must have this setting enabled. If you are the BDC you must

# change the ‘domain master’ setting to no

#

; domain logons = yes

#

# The following setting only takes effect if ‘domain logons’ is set

# It specifies the location of the user’s profile directory

# from the client point of view)

# The following required a [profiles] share to be setup on the

# samba server (see below)

; logon path = \%Nprofiles%U

# Another common choice is storing the profile in the user’s home directory

# (this is Samba’s default)

# logon path = \%N%Uprofile


# The following setting only takes effect if ‘domain logons’ is set

# It specifies the location of a user’s home directory (from the client

# point of view)

; logon drive = H:

# logon home = \%N%U


# The following setting only takes effect if ‘domain logons’ is set

# It specifies the script to run during logon. The script must be stored

# in the [netlogon] share

# NOTE: Must be store in ‘DOS’ file format convention

; logon script = logon.cmd


# This allows Unix users to be created on the domain controller via the SAMR

# RPC pipe. The example command creates a user account with a disabled Unix

# password; please adapt to your needs

; add user script = /usr/sbin/adduser –quiet –disabled-password –gecos “” %u


# This allows machine accounts to be created on the domain controller via the

# SAMR RPC pipe.

# The following assumes a “machines” group exists on the system

; add machine script = /usr/sbin/useradd -g machines -c “%u machine account” -d /var/lib/samba -s /bin/false %u


# This allows Unix groups to be created on the domain controller via the SAMR

# RPC pipe.

; add group script = /usr/sbin/addgroup –force-badname %g


########## Printing ##########


# If you want to automatically load your printer list rather

# than setting them up individually then you’ll need this

# load printers = yes


# lpr(ng) printing. You may wish to override the location of the

# printcap file

; printing = bsd

; printcap name = /etc/printcap


# CUPS printing. See also the cupsaddsmb(8) manpage in the

# cupsys-client package.

; printing = cups

; printcap name = cups


############ Misc ############


# Using the following line enables you to customise your configuration

# on a per machine basis. The %m gets replaced with the netbios name

# of the machine that is connecting

; include = /home/samba/etc/smb.conf.%m


# Most people will find that this option gives better performance.

# See smb.conf(5) and /usr/share/doc/samba-doc/htmldocs/Samba3-HOWTO/speed.html

# for details

# You may want to add the following on a Linux system:

# SO_RCVBUF=8192 SO_SNDBUF=8192

# socket options = TCP_NODELAY


# The following parameter is useful only if you have the linpopup package

# installed. The samba maintainer and the linpopup maintainer are

# working to ease installation and configuration of linpopup and samba.

; message command = /bin/sh -c ‘/usr/bin/linpopup “%f” “%m” %s; rm %s’ &


# Domain Master specifies Samba to be the Domain Master Browser. If this

# machine will be configured as a BDC (a secondary logon server), you

# must set this to ‘no’; otherwise, the default behavior is recommended.

# domain master = auto


# Some defaults for winbind (make sure you’re not using the ranges

# for something else.)

; idmap uid = 10000-20000

; idmap gid = 10000-20000

; template shell = /bin/bash


# The following was the default behaviour in sarge,

# but samba upstream reverted the default because it might induce

# performance issues in large organizations.

# See Debian bug #368251 for some of the consequences of *not*

# having this setting and smb.conf(5) for details.

; winbind enum groups = yes

; winbind enum users = yes


# Setup usershare options to enable non-root users to share folders

# with the net usershare command.


# Maximum number of usershare. 0 (default) means that usershare is disabled.

; usershare max shares = 100


# Allow users who’ve been granted usershare privileges to create

# public shares, not just authenticated ones

usershare allow guests = yes


#======================= Share Definitions =======================


[homes]

comment = Home Directories

browseable = no


# By default, the home directories are exported read-only. Change the

# next parameter to ‘no’ if you want to be able to write to them.

read only = yes


# File creation mask is set to 0700 for security reasons. If you want to

# create files with group=rw permissions, set next parameter to 0775.

create mask = 0700


# Directory creation mask is set to 0700 for security reasons. If you want to

# create dirs. with group=rw permissions, set next parameter to 0775.

directory mask = 0700


# By default, \serverusername shares can be connected to by anyone

# with access to the samba server.

# The following parameter makes sure that only “username” can connect

# to \serverusername

# This might need tweaking when using external authentication schemes

valid users = %S


# Un-comment the following and create the netlogon directory for Domain Logons

# (you need to configure Samba to act as a domain controller too.)

;[netlogon]

; comment = Network Logon Service

; path = /home/samba/netlogon

; guest ok = yes

; read only = yes


# Un-comment the following and create the profiles directory to store

# users profiles (see the “logon path” option above)

# (you need to configure Samba to act as a domain controller too.)

# The path below should be writable by all users so that their

# profile directory may be created the first time they log on

;[profiles]

; comment = Users profiles

; path = /home/samba/profiles

; guest ok = no

; browseable = no

; create mask = 0600

; directory mask = 0700


[printers]

comment = All Printers

browseable = no

path = /var/spool/samba

printable = yes

guest ok = no

read only = yes

create mask = 0700


# Windows clients look for this share name as a source of downloadable

# printer drivers

[print$]

comment = Printer Drivers

path = /var/lib/samba/printers

browseable = yes

read only = yes

guest ok = no

# Uncomment to allow remote administration of Windows print drivers.

# You may need to replace ‘lpadmin’ with the name of the group your

# admin users are members of.

# Please note that you also need to set appropriate Unix permissions

# to the drivers directory for these users to have write rights in it

; write list = root, @lpadmin


# A sample share for sharing your CD-ROM with others.

;[cdrom]

; comment = Samba server’s CD-ROM

; read only = yes

; locking = no

; path = /cdrom

; guest ok = yes


# The next two parameters show how to auto-mount a CD-ROM when the

# cdrom share is accesed. For this to work /etc/fstab must contain

# an entry like this:

#

# /dev/scd0 /cdrom iso9660 defaults,noauto,ro,user 0 0

#

# The CD-ROM gets unmounted automatically after the connection to the

#

# If you don’t want to use auto-mounting/unmounting make sure the CD

# is mounted on /cdrom

#

; preexec = /bin/mount /cdrom

; postexec = /bin/umount /cdrom
root@scientific:/etc/samba#
I am gonna Change the ####### Authentication ####### ….. I will just remove hash from
# security = user
Hopping everything is well. I will add share to an specific user :
adduser smbuser
addgroup smbuser smbshare //Remember already added sambashare group?
Now I run command:
service samba restart
Before testing we need to set password for smbuser:
smbpasswd -a smbuser
Seems everything is fine . Now time to check if it is working .
First time It did not work for me. So I had to edit few things:
###Not So Important, But I did ####
[homes]
comment = /home/smbuser/
browseable = yes
# By default, the home directories are exported read-only. Change the
# next parameter to ‘no’ if you want to be able to write to them.
read only = no #It was set to “YEST” , Test with “YES” Too
And few change made (With Security Risk):
# File creation mask is set to 0700 for security reasons. If you want to
# create files with group=rw permissions, set next parameter to 0775.
create mask = 0775
# Directory creation mask is set to 0700 for security reasons. If you want to
# create dirs. with group=rw permissions, set next parameter to 0775.
directory mask = 0775
Now let’s test:
1. Go to windows
2. Run explorer
3. type : \your_ipsmbuser ###smbuser==username
4. It will ask for username and password
5. Enter username and password and hit enter.
6. Done:
We must remember about samba security . It certainly will open two ports 445 and 139. Let’s run nmap command against the IP :

 :~$ nmap -v 192.168.78.140

Starting Nmap 6.00 ( http://nmap.org ) at 2013-02-16 02:28 EST
Initiating Ping Scan at 02:28
Scanning 192.168.78.140 [2 ports]
Completed Ping Scan at 02:28, 0.00s elapsed (1 total hosts)
Initiating Parallel DNS resolution of 1 host. at 02:28
Completed Parallel DNS resolution of 1 host. at 02:28, 0.00s elapsed
Initiating Connect Scan at 02:28
Scanning 192.168.78.140 [1000 ports]
Discovered open port 111/tcp on 192.168.78.140
Discovered open port 445/tcp on 192.168.78.140
Discovered open port 80/tcp on 192.168.78.140
Discovered open port 139/tcp on 192.168.78.140
Completed Connect Scan at 02:28, 0.03s elapsed (1000 total ports)
Nmap scan report for 192.168.78.140
Host is up (0.0013s latency).
Not shown: 996 closed ports
PORT    STATE SERVICE
80/tcp  open  http
111/tcp open  rpcbind
139/tcp open  netbios-ssn
445/tcp open  microsoft-ds

Read data files from: /usr/bin/../share/nmap
Nmap done: 1 IP address (1 host up) scanned in 0.07 seconds

Now it is time to think about samba security 🙂

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